List of Abbreviations

AFJ – The Apollo Flight Journal, which details missions before those that landed, and also covers in more detail the flight aspects of other missions.

AIA – Apollo Image Atlas. All mission photographs, many available in high resolution.

ALSJ – Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. The essential resource for all things Apollo.

AOS – Acquisition of signal. The part of the lunar orbit when the orbiting CSM emerges from the radio blackout of the far side of the moon.APT - Automatic Picture Transmission system. A method of transmitting satellite images between receiving stations.

ATS – Applications Technology Satellite.

CAPCOM – Capsule communications. The Houston based personnel (usually astronauts) who acted as the sole voice link between mission control and the Apollo crew.

CSM (also CM) -  Command & Service Module. The portion of the Apollo craft that stayed in lunar orbit. The Command Module (CM) portion is the only part that returned to Earth.

DAPP – Data Acquisition and Processing Program. Polar orbital satellites run by the US military in the 1960s, generally with higher resolution cameras. Also known as DMSP.

DMSP  - Defense Meteorological Support Program. See DAPP.

ESSA – Environmental Science Services Administration. Organisation managing environmental research in the USA. Also used as a satellite name (eg ESSA 7).

EVA – Extra-vehicular activity. Any activity outside a spacecraft.

GAP – Gateway to Astronaut Photography. Useful resource of high quality images. Not all Apollo images are available in high quality.

GET – Ground Elapsed Time. Time recorded on the ground since launch. See MET.

HEO – High Earth Orbit. Location for geostationary satellites around 24000 miles up.

ITOS – Improved TIROS Operational System.

LEO – Low Earth Orbit. Usually around 200-400 miles up.

LM – Lunar Module.

LOS – Loss of signal. The part of the lunar orbit where the CSM disappears behind the far side of the moon.

LRV – Lunar Roving Vehicle.

MET – Mission Elapsed Time. Time recorded since launch,

MWL – Mariner's Weather Log. A monthly journal for seafarers that frequently used satellite images in its reports.

MWR – Monthly Weather Review. A useful source of contemporary weather data and satellite images.

NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NOAA – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Successor to ESSA.

SIV-B – The stage of the Saturn V rocket that contained the LM before it docked with the CSM.

TEC – Trans-Earth Coast. The journey from Moon to Earth

TEI – Trans-Earth Injection. The rocket burn (usually carried out on the far side of the moon) that commenced the return to Earth from lunar orbit.

TIROS – Television Infra-Red Observational Satellites.

TLC – Trans-Lunar Coast. The journey from Earth to Moon.

TLI – Trans-Lunar Injection. The rocket burn taking the Apollo craft from Earth orbit towards the Moon.

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