Technically the next image in the sequence is AS13-
Figure 184.108.40.206: AS13-
The time for this photograph has been fixed largely by referring to the analysis in the next photograph, where there is a clear view of Australia, but we can also look at the satellite image to show that the large swirl of cloud in the North Pacific, which nestles snugly in the Gulf of Alaska. IT even seems to get a reference in the transcripts, where at about 04:55 we have this:
081:35:32 Haise: Man, that's a wicked low pressure down there.
The analysis in figure 220.127.116.11, and 18.104.22.168 makes this clearer.
Figure 22.214.171.124: AS13-
Figure 126.96.36.199: AS13-
The dominant weather system (blue arrow and shown in 4.5.15b) on the map is a development of the one identified by the blue arrow in figure 4.5.6, and its centre is still located roughly over Alaska & Kamchatka. Close inspection of the south-
It’s worth pointing out that the 3D reconstructions show more of Australia than is actually visible. It’s a fiddly process getting those views right, but the position of the terminator is correct.
The next image in the sequence is AS13-
082:57:30 Haise: Okay. Jack's got the one with the 250-
That transcript time equates to around 06:15
Figure 188.8.131.52 shows the original Apollo image, and figure 184.108.40.206 has the same image compared with satellite photographs.
Figure 220.127.116.11: AS13-
Figure 18.104.22.168: AS13-
What the image shows is that weather patterns that were towards the west of the globe have moved much closer towards the terminator, and systems identified in figure 4.5.15 can also be identified in figure 4.5.17. Australia's position on the terminator allows a relatively precise estimate of the time the image was taken: 08:15. As the satellite photograph is dated the 14th this gives the appropriate orbital pass as number 5158 (track 9), commenced at 07:01 on the 15th. A few hours after the Australias enter darkness, ESSA starts a new collection of orbits that will have the next day's date on them.
Two images later in this magazine we have a similar view in AS13-
Figure 22.214.171.124: AS13-
There isn’t much point in repeating the analysis, but close examination of the cloud systems along the terminator show that there has been definite rotation. The clouds over western Australia identified by the yellow arrow in figure 126.96.36.199, for example, are now almost on the terminator, as is the system picked out by the green arrow.
There are no firm hints in the transcript specifically about these last two photographs, but capcom is informed regularly at around this time of the angle at which Earth appears on the LPD (Landing Point Designator -
The next Apollo image to be looked at is AS13-
Figure 188.8.131.52: AS13-
Figure 184.108.40.206: S13-
It doesn't take much zooming in on this image to see that the terminator line crosses north Africa somewhere along the coast of Tunisia/Algeria, which gives a time of the photograph as around 18:00.The main weather system visible over the Atlantic is the same one observed in figure 220.127.116.11, but it has changed in the couple of days since it was first photographed, separating itself from the other clouds in the mid-
The movement of the Earth has also brought the ATS satellite back into play when confirming the timing of the Apollo image. ATS' image is time stamped at 15:59 on the 15th. ESSA's most representative orbit is pass 5161 (track 12), which commenced at 13:06 – not long before the ATS image, and within a few hours of the Apollo photograph.
The next picture to be analysed in full is the final image in magazine 60: AS13-
Figure 18.104.22.168: AS13-
The key to timing these two images is the position of the large weather system across the centre of the USA, and the smaller system over New England shown in the ESSA view. The central system is very close to the western limb. There’s enough of the southern Pacific off the coast of Chile to also allow a reasonable time estimate. There is obvious movement between the two, and I’d suggest no more than 30 minutes have elapsed between them.
It becomes much easier to tell the time when we look at the more detailed view shown in AS13-
Figure 22.214.171.124: AS13-
Figure 126.96.36.199: AS13-
At the risk of pointing out the obvious (again), there is a degree of overlap between this image and the previous one. The 'speech bubble' cloud identified by the green arrow in figure 4.5.22 has now been split by the terminator line, and the north American mainland can be made out to the west of it. The more detailed NIMBUS IR image shows excellent correspondence with the Apollo photo over Canada.
Using this terminator line SkySafari times this image as roughly 22:30. The ATS image is till the 15th, and the ESSA image is also dated that day. The ESSA pass covering the Atlantic seaboard is track 2, which translates to orbit number 5163, commenced at 16:07. By this time in the journey the CSM and its attendant LM had just passed into the Earth's gravitational sphere of influence and were beginning to accelerate. The crew were also preparing for a mid-
There’s one more image in this sequence of Earth photos, all timed around the crucial correction burn that ensures their safe arrival back home, and that can be seen in figure 188.8.131.52.
Figure 184.108.40.206: AS13-
The storm over New England has now completely disappeared into darkness, as has South America.
Having survived another 24 hours, we move on to day 6 of the mission -