4. Comparisons of Apollo & Satellite images

This section will deal with each Apollo mission where the moon was at least orbited (or in the case of Apollo 13, slingshotted around).

For each mission a range of images will be selected representing different stages of the mission and showing different parts of the Earth's surface. Wherever possible, multiple satellite sources will be used. ESSA satellite timings will be derived from the meteorological data catalogues for those satellites. Where individual ESSA, ATS or NIMBUS images are available from contemporary sources, these will used in their entirety. Download managers may be required for some links as they do not always display correctly. As the documents and other material are not hosted by the author, no guarantees can made about their permanent existence.

Where available, synoptic charts will also be used to show that weather systems visible on the satellite photographs were also present on the charts.

The most appropriate method of displaying the coincident weather systems has required some thought. A simple method of identifying cloud masses by letter has been employed by others on the internet, but it was felt that this would be potentially confusing. Instead, coloured arrows will be used to identify the same weather patterns. The use of arrows may well appear repetitive and to an extent pointless, but consistency requires their use in each image. but consistency requires their use in each image. There are also those out there who can’t see what’s in front of them even when it is described in detail, and will deny the existence of identical features. Actually pointing them out makes this more difficult for them to do.


The Apollo image will be shown in full, but for the actual analysis only the portion featuring the Earth will be used.

It is worth re-iterating that no material alteration of the photographs has been performed in any way: no weather systems have been changed on any image.

All the images are publicly available and sceptical readers are invited to look at these sources themselves to verify their accuracy. The images on these webpages are reproduced from the pdf document that formed this research’s original web presence, and occasionally that has led to poorer quality. It is too big a job for now to re-do them! If you want higher quality, download the original pdf! You may occasionally find black squares on some Apollo photos – this is where I have removed Stellarium inserts from the original pdf versions.

The main aim of each analysis is to identify weather patterns that appear in satellite photographs. A secondary aim is to try and pinpoint a time that the photograph was taken, and this will be primarily done with the track records of the satellites.  Additional sources, such as voice transcripts, descriptions given in the various image sources on the internet, contemporary journals and media, and where possible the photographic index from each mission (these can, in some missions, indicate the orbit concerned and the mission elapsed time). The latter will be used sparingly, as it is the evidence within the photographs themselves that is the most important factor here.

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